All rights reserved. Any or all portions of this document may be reproduced and distributed without prior permission provided the source is cited as:

Dynamic Learning Maps Consortium. (2022, December). 2021–2022 Technical Manual—Year-End Model. University of Kansas, Accessible Teaching, Learning, and Assessment Systems.


The publication of this technical manual update represents the culmination of a body of work in the service of creating a meaningful assessment system designed to serve students with the most significant cognitive disabilities. Hundreds of people have contributed to this undertaking. We acknowledge them all for their contributions.

Many contributors made the writing of this technical manual possible. Dynamic Learning Maps® (DLM®) staff who made significant writing contributions to this technical manual are listed below with gratitude.

W. Jake Thompson, Ph.D., Assistant Director for Psychometrics
Amy K. Clark, Ph.D., Associate Director for Operational Research

The authors also wish to acknowledge Ashley Hirt, Jeffrey Hoover, Elizabeth Kavitsky, Jennifer Kobrin, Brooke Nash, and Noelle Pablo for their role in developing, organizing, and compiling this manual. The authors also wish to acknowledge Brianna Beitling, Lisa Braun, Steve Breedlove, Amber Cavasos, Alson Cole, Karen Erickson, Zachary Hopper, Eun Mi Kim, Sarah Koebley, Jessica Lancaster, Mari Langas, Susan Martin, Jonathan Schuster, Vanessa Simmering, Mark Thompson, Delaney Wilson, and Nicole Zdeb for their contributions to this manual. Finally, the authors wish to thank Kristy Bledsoe, Lucas Cooper, Justin Dean, Aaron Gates, Whitney Lohrenz, and Sara Lundberg for their editing and project management work. The present technical manual is a refresh of the 2014–2015 technical manual. For a list of project staff who contributed to the original technical documentation for the DLM System, please see the 2014–2015 Technical Manual—Year-End Model, and the subsequent annual technical manual updates.

We are also grateful for the contributions of the members of the DLM Technical Advisory Committee who graciously provided their expertise and feedback on the DLM System, including drafts of the technical manual chapters. Members of the Technical Advisory Committee during the 2021–2022 operational year include:

Russell Almond, Ph.D., Florida State University
Karla Egan, Ph.D., EdMetric
Claudia Flowers, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Robert Henson, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Joan Herman, Ed.D., University of California, Los Angeles
James Pellegrino, Ph.D., University of Illinois Chicago
Edward Roeber, Ph.D., Michigan Assessment Consortium
David Williamson, Ph.D., The College Board
Phoebe Winter, Ph.D., Independent Consultant